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Merhaba!
Tue Feb 16, 2010 7:41 am by doktorK
Hi everyone!
My name is Keila. I'm from Brasil.
I would like to learn turkish language....
Can you help me? Very Happy

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Welcome to the Turkish forum!
Fri Feb 27, 2009 2:05 pm by Ghenwa
Hi everyone and welcome to the forum. This forum is dedicated to Turkey fans and admirers, that includes persons like Turks, their culture and history, and for persons that somehow are connected with Turkey or with the Turks.
Hope you enjoy it!Smile

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 Personal Pronouns

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Ghenwa
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PostSubject: Personal Pronouns   Sat Apr 04, 2009 4:07 pm

Personal Pronouns


All About Personal Pronouns - I, you, we, you, he, she, it, they

The Personal Pronouns are not used so widely as in English as the person is evident from the personal verb ending.

They are used for emphasis only in their simple form. However they are used in their extended forms when suffixes are added for all those important little words - "to, from, with, etc." - which are discussed below.

Personal Pronouns - The Simple Forms

The Personal Pronouns are usually only used for emphasis as the verb form itself already points to the person. It is similar to Spanish where a person will say - comprendo - I understand - instead of Yo comprendo - I understand

Singular:
ben - I
sen - you - familiar
o - He, she, it

Plural:
biz - we
siz -you - plural and polite singular
onlar -they

Examples of Emphasis:

gidiyorum - I'm going - but emphasized - ben gidiyorum - I am going
kaldık - we stayed - but emphasized - biz kaldık - We stayed

Extended Forms of Personal Pronouns

The main use for the Personal Pronouns is to extend them with all the important little words - to, from, with etc. , which of course are suffixes in Turkish.

* With the -a -e suffix - to, towards:

Singular
bana - to me
sana - to you
ona - to him, to her , to it

Plural
bize - to us
size - to you
onlara - to them

Notice that the first and second person singular forms are bana and sana - they are irregular - bene and sene - would have been expected. This is a shift that has happened historically but some of the Turkic Languages have not made this Vowel Shift so - bene and sene - are used in the Kahzhak and Uzbek tongues.


Some Examples With the -a -e suffix

Bana onu verin - Give that to me
Onlara bakınız - Look at them - lit: towards them
Bize inanıyorlar - They believe us - lit: believe to us

Note that the word - inanmak - to believe - takes the Dative Case as its Object - hence Turkish says - bize inanin - believe to us. Whereas English uses the direct object for the verb - to believe - thus we say - Believe us.

We also have certain verbs in English that do not take the Direct object case - as in - "I am frightened OF the dark."
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PostSubject: Re: Personal Pronouns   Sat Apr 04, 2009 4:19 pm

* With the addition of -de -da suffix - in, on, at:

All the pronouns retain their regular form when adding the -de/-da suffix.

Singular
bende - in, on,at me
sende - on you
onda - on him, on her , on it

Plural
bizde - on us
sizde - on you
onlarda - on them

Examples with the -de/-da suffix:

Bende para yok - I've got no money - lit: on me
Sende para var mı? - Have you got any money? - lit: on you
Bizde para var mı? - Have we got any money? - lit: on us

* With the addition of -den -dan suffix - from, by, via:

All the pronouns retain their regular form when adding the -den/-dan suffix

Singular
benden - from me
senden - from you
ondan - from him, her ,it

Plural
bizden - from us
sizden - from you
onlardan - from them

Examples with the -den suffix

Benden bir şemsiye alabilirsiniz - You can have an umbrella off me. - lit: from me
Senden bir sigara alır mıyım? - Can I have a cigarette off you? - lit: take from you
Ondan korkuyorum - I am frightened of him - lit: frightened from him

* With the addition of -in suffix - of, belonging to

Note that the First Person Singular - benim - and First Person Plural - bizim - are both irregular as - benin - and - bizin - would have been expected.

Singular
benim - my, of me
senin - your, of you
onun - his, hers, its, of him..

Plural
bizim - our, of us
sizin -your, of you
onların - their, of them

Examples with the -in suffix

Benim şemsiyemi alabilirsiniz. - You can take my umbrella.
şemsiye-m-i - my umbrella - as a Direct Object (see below).
Senin araban yeni mi? - Is your car new?
Onların arabası eskidir. - Their car is old.

* With the addition of -i suffix - signifies the Direct Object - the..

All the pronouns retain their regular form when adding the -i -ı -u -ü - Direct Object suffix

Singular
beni - me
seni - you
onu - him, her, it

Plural
bizi - us
sizi -you
onları - them

Examples with the -i Direct Object Suffix

Mehmet, beni vurdu - Mehmet hit me.
ben-i - "me" - as a Direct Object

Ali, arabanı onardı mı mi? - Did Ali repair your car?
araba-n-ı - "your car" - as a Direct Object

Mustafa, onu yaptı - Mustafa did it..
on-u - "it" - as a Direct Object

* With the addition of -la/ -la (ile) suffix - with, and, together with

Adding the -le -la suffix can be considered as an exception.

It is added to the genitive -in form of the pronouns, not directly to the root pronoun - except for the third person plural - onlarla - with them

Singular
benimle - with me
seninle - with you
onunla - with him.. her.. it..

Plural
bizimle - with us
sizinle -with you
onlarla - with them

Examples with the -le suffix

Mehmet, benimle geldi. - Mehmet came with me. Mehmet and I came.
ben-im-le - with me or and I

Ali, onlarla geldi mi? - Did Ali come with them?
onlar-la - with them - see exception note below

Mustafa, bizimle kalacak - Mustafa will stay with us..
biz-im-le - with us

Note that the -le or -la - with - suffix is added to the Genitive Form of Pronouns. - Except for the third person plural which retains the basic form - onlarla - with them


Last edited by Ghenwa on Wed Jul 15, 2009 7:07 pm; edited 1 time in total
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PostSubject: Re: Personal Pronouns   Tue Apr 07, 2009 7:57 am

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